Kratos Axis Ultra XPS


Nanomaterials, photovoltaics, catalysis, corrosion, adhesion, electronic devices and packaging, magnetic media, display technology, surface treatments, and thin film coatings used for numerous applications

  • Chemical composition
  • Element state of materials
  • Element distribution
  • Depth-profiling
  • In-situ heating and cooling


Nancy Senabulya Muyanja


Room G019


Publications, presentations, and posters resulting from work on this instrument should state: “The authors acknowledge the financial support of the University of Michigan College of Engineering and NSF grant #DMR-0420785, and technical support from the Michigan Center for Materials Characterization.”


  • X-ray Sources: Monochromatic Al source, Al and Mg regular sources
  • Operating Conditions
    • Spectrum mode: ~ 10 mA ~ 15 kV
    • Parallel XPS imaging
  • Vacuum System
    • Specimen Transfer Chamber (STC): <5 x 10-7 torr
    • Specimen Analysis Chamber (SAC): ~1 x 10-9 torr
  • Specimen Stage
    • Motorized sample movement in x, y, z directions and tilting
    • Can be operated at ~600 oC to -100 oC
  • Analysis Area
    • Spectrum mode: Using the monochromated Al source, 2 x 1 mm with energy resolution ~0.5 ev
    • Small area spectroscopy: ~ several µm
    • Imaging mode: ~ 900 µm x 900 µm with spatial resolution ~ 6 µm


  1. Improved Electrochemical Properties of Li4Ti5O12 Nanopowders (NPs) via Addition of LiAlO2 and Li6SiON Polymer Electrolytes, Derived from Agricultural Waste, E. Temeche, E. Buch, X. Zhang, T. Brandt, A. Hintennach, R.M. Laine, ACS Applied Energy Materials, 4(2), 2021
  2. Hydroxyl Radical Suppression During Photoelectrocatalytic Water Oxidation on WO3│FeOOH, A.D. Proctor, B.M. Bartlett, J. Phys. Chem. C, 124(33), 17957-17963, 2020
  3. Nitrate Radical Facilitates Indirect Benzyl Alcohol Oxidation on Bismuth (III) Vanadate Photoelectrodes, B.D. Terry, J.L. DiMeglio, J.P. Cousineau, B.M. Bartlett, ChemElectroChem, 7(18), 3776-3782, 2020
  4. High-Performance Zinc Tin Oxide TFTs with Active Layers Deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition, C.R. Allemang, T.H. Cho, O. Trejo, S. Ravan, R.E. Rodriguez, N.P. Dasgupta, R.L. Peterson, Advanced Electronic Materials, 6, 2000195, 2020
  5. Controlled Formation of Multilayer Films of Discrete Molecular Catalysts for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction Using a Layer-by-Layer Growth Mechanism Based on Sequential Click Chemistry, J.D. Kallick, W-J. Feng, C.L. McCrory, ACS Applied Energy Materials, 3, 6222-6231, 2020
  6. Assessing and Improving the Biocompatibility of Microfluidic Artificial Lungs, A.J. Thompson, L.J. Ma, T. Major, M. Jeakle, O. Lautner-Csorba, M.J. Goudie, H. Handa, A. Rojas-Pena, J.A. Potkay, Acta Biomaterialia, 112, 190-201, 2020 
  7. Thermally Induced Restructuring of Pd@CeO2 and Pd@SiO2 Nanoparticles as a Strategy for Enhancing Low-Temperature Catalytic Activity, A.J. Hill, C.Y. Seo, X. Chen, A. Bhat, G.B. Fisher, A. Lenert, J.W. Schwank, ACS Catalysis, 10, 1731-1741, 2020
  8. Monolithic Integration of High-Voltage Thin-Film Electronics on Low-Voltage Integrated Circuits Using a Solution Process, Y. Son, B. Frost, Y. Zhao, R.L. Peterson, Nature Electronics, 2, 540-548, 2019
  9. Magnetic Frustration Control through Tunable Stereochemically Driven Disorder in Entropy-Stabilized Oxides, P.B. Meisenheimer, L.D. Williams, S.H. Sung, J. Gim, P. Shafer, G.N. Kotsonis, J-P. Maria, M. Trassin, R. Hovden, E. Kioupakis, J.T. Heron, Physical Review Materials, 3, 104420, 2019
  10. Diverse Nanoassemblies of Graphene Quantum Dots and Their Mineralogical Counterparts, N.A. Kotov, Z-b. Qu, W-J. Feng, Y. Wang, F. Romanenko, Angewandte Chemie, 58, 2-11, 2019 
  11. Exploring Wettability by Imaging the Adsorption of Crude Oil, Re-Dissolved Asphaltene, and Phenol Solutions onto Calcite: Implications to Sorption Mechanisms and Molecular Structure of Surface-Active Compounds in Crude Oil, Chemical Geology, M.C. Marcano, S. Kim, S.D. Taylor, U. Becker, 525, 462-478, 2019 
  12. Photocatalytic Primary Alcohol Oxidation on WO3 Nanoplatelets, K.D. McDonald, B.M. Bartlett, RSC Advances, 9, 28688-28694, 2019
  13. Tuning Catalytic Performance by Controlling Reconstruction Process in Operando Condition, C. Cai, S. Han, K. Sun, L. Qiao, S. Li, X. Zu, Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 260, 118103, 2019
  14. Protection of GaInP2 Photocathodes by Direct Photoelectrodeposition of MoSx Thin Films, M. Lancaster, R. Mow, J. Liu, Q. Cheek, M.M. Macinnes, M.M. Al-Jassim, T.G. Deutsch, J.L. Young, S. Maldonado, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 11(28), 25115-25122, 2019
  15. Carbon-Assisted Catalyst Pretreatment Enables Straightforward Synthesis of High-Density Carbon Nanotube Forests, N.T. Dee, A.O. White, C. Jacob, W. Shi, P.R. Kidambi, K. Cui, D.N. Zakharov, N.Z. Janković, M. Bedewy, C.A.C. Chazot, J. Carpena-Núñez, B. Maruyama, E.A. Stach, D.L. Plata, A.J. Hart, Carbon, 153, 196-205, 2019
  16. Nitrate Mediated Alcohol Oxidation on Cadmium Sulfide Photocatalysts, J. DiMeglio, A.G. Breuheus-Alvarez, S. Li, B.M. Bartlett, ACS Catalysis, 2019(9), 5732-5741, 2019
  17. On Formation of Al-O-C Bonds at Aluminum/Polyamide Joint Interface, F.C. Liu, P. Dong, W. Lu, K. Sun, Applied Surface Science, 466, 202-209, 2019
  18. Imidazole for Pyridine Substitution Leads to Enhanced Activity under Milder Conditions in Cobalt Water Oxidation Electrocatalysis, N.D. McMillon, A.W. Wilson, M.K. Goetz, M. Chang, C. Lin, W. Feng, C. McCrory, J.S. Anderson, Inorganic Chemistry, 58(2), 1391-1397, 2019
  19. Understanding Molecular Fragmentation in Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Devices, C. Jeong, C. Coburn, M. Idris, Y. Li, P.L. Djurovich, M.E. Thompson, S.R. Forrest, Organic Electronics, 64, 15-21, 2019
  20. Kinetics and Faradaic Efficiency of Oxygen Evolution on Reduced HxWO3 Photoelectrodes, A.G. Breheus-Alvarez, J.L. DiMeglio, J.J. Cooper, C.R. Lhermitte, B.M. Bartlett, Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 123, 1142-1150, 2019
  21. Stability of Polyethylene Glycol and Zwitterionic Surface Modifications in PDMS Microfluidic Flow Chambers, T.J. Plegue, K.M. Kovach, A.J. Thompson, J.A. Potkay, Langmuir, 34(1), 492-502, 2018
  22. Effect of Surface Hydration on Antifouling Properties of Mixed Charged Polymers, C. Leng, H. Huang, K. Zhang, H. Hung, Y. Xu, Y. Li, S. Jiang, Z. Chen, Langmuir, 34(22), 6538-6545, 2018
  23. Use of Nitrogen-Containing Carbon Supports to Control the Acidity of Supported Heteropolyacid Model Catalysts, X. Zhao, X. Li, J. Chen, M.A. Barteau, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 57(42), 13999-14010, 2018
  24. Photocatalytic Reduction of Uranyl: Effects of Organic Ligands and UV Light Wavelengths, Y. Kim, M.C. Marcano, B.R. Ellis, U. Becker, American Journal of Science, 318(9), 949-968, 2018
  25. Atomic Layer Deposition and First Principles Modeling of Glassy Li3BO3-Li2CO3 Electrolytes for Solid-State Li Metal Batteries, E. Kazyak, K. Chen, A.L. Davis, S. Yu, A.J. Sanchez, J. Lasso, A.R. Bielinski, T. Thompson, J. Sakamoto, D.J. Siegel, N.P. Dasgupta, Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 6(40), 19425-19437, 2018
  26. Synergistic Effect of 3D Current Collectors and ALD Surface Modification for High Coulombic Efficiency Lithium Metal Anodes, K. Chen, A.J. Sanchez, E. Kazyak, A.L. Davis, N.P. Dasgupta, Advanced Energy Materials, 9(4), 1802534, 2018
  27. Effect of Relative Humidity and Pre-Annealing Temperature on Spin-Coated Zinc Tin Oxide Films Made via the Metal-Organic Decomposition Route, Y. Son, A. Liao, R.L. Peterson, Journal of Materials Chemistry C, 5, 8071-8081, 2017
  28. Inkjet-Printed Paper-Based Colorimetric Polyion Sensor Using a Smartphone as a Detector, X. Wang, M. Mahoney, M.E. Meyerhoff, Analytical Chemistry, 89, 12334-12341, 2017
  29. Role of Crystal Structure and Chalcogenide Redox Properties on the Oxidative Assembly of Cadmium Chalcogenide Nanocrystals, J.L. Davis, A.M. Chalifoux, S.L. Brock, Langmuir, 33(37), 9434-9443, 2017
  30. The Roles of Rare-Earth Dopants in Solution-Processed ZnO-Based Transparent Conductive Oxides, W. Hu, R.L. Peterson, Journal of Applied Physics, 122(10), 105301, 2017
  31. Ultrasmall Paramagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoprobe Targeting Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor for in Vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Y. Chen, Q. Zhou, X. Li, F. Wang, K. Heist, R. Kuick, S.R. Owens, T.D. Wang, Bioconjugate Chemistry, 28(11), 2794-2803, 2017
  32. As Precious as Platinum: Iron Nitride for Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Liquid Ammonia, D.J. Little, D.O. Edwards, M.R. Smith, T.W. Hamann, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 9(19), 16228-16235, 2017
  33. Indium-Doped Co3O4 Nanorods for Catalytic Oxidation of CO and C3H6 towards Diesel Exhaust, L. Ma, C.Y. Seo, X.Y. Chen, K. Sun, J.W. Schwank, Applied Catalysis B-Environmental, 222, 44-58, 2017
  34. Interplay of Corrosion and Photocatalysis During Nonaqueous Benzylamine Oxidation on Cadmium Sulfide, J.L. DiMeglio, B.M. Bartlett, Chemistry of Materials, 29 (17), 7579-7586, 2017
  35. Enhanced Interfacial Strength and UV Shielding of Aramid Fiber Composites through ZnO Nanoparticle Sizing, B.A. Patterson, H.A. Sodano, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 8(49), 33963-33971, 2016
  36. Direct Observation of Hydrogenation and Dehydrogenation of a Zirconium Alloy, H.H. Shen, X.T. Zu, B. Chen, C.Q. Huang, K. Sun, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 659, 23-30, 2016
  37. Memristive Behavior and Ideal Memristor of 1T Phase MoS2 Nanosheets, P.F. Cheng, K. Sun, Y.H. Hu, Nano Letters, 16(1), 572-576, 2016
  38. An Efficient Counter Electrode Material for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells—Flower-Structured 1T Metallic Phase MoS2, W. Wei, K. Sun, Y.H. Hu, Journal of Materials Chemistry, 4(32), 12398-12401, 2016
  39. Mechanically-Induced Reverse Phase Transformation of MoS2 from Stable 2H to Metastable 1T and its Memristive Behavior, P. Cheng, K. Sun, Y.H. Hu, RSC Advances, 6(70), 65691-65697, 2016
  40. The Bright Future for Electrode Materials of Energy Devices ─ Highly Conductive Porous Na-Embedded Carbon, W. Wei, L. Chang, K. Sun, A. Pak, E. Paek, G. Hwang, Y.H. Hu, Nano Letters, 16(12), 8029-8033, 2016
  41. In Situ Chemical Modification of Schottky Barrier in Solution-Processed Zinc Tin Oxide Diode, Y. Son, J. Li, R.L. Peterson, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 8(36), 23801–23809, 2016
  42. Kinetic Trapping of Immisicible Metal Atoms into Bimetallic Nanoparticles through Plasmonic Visible Light-Mediated Reduction of a Bimetallic Oxide Precursor: Case Study of Ag-Pt Nanoparticle Synthesis U. Aslam, S. Linic Chemistry of Materials, 28(22), 8289-8295, 2016
  43. Improved Cycle Life and Stability of Lithium Metal Anodes through Ultrathin Atomic Layer Deposition Surface Treatments, E. Kazyak, K.N. Wood, N.P. Dasgupta, Chem. Mater., 27 (18), 6457–6462, 2015
  44. Hierarchical ZnO Nanowire Growth with Tunable Orientations on Versatile Substrates Using Atomic Layer Deposition Seeding, A.R. Bielinski, E. Kazyak, C.M. Schlepütz, H.J. Jung, K.N. Wood, N.P. Dasgupta, Chem. Mater., 27(13), 4799–4807, 2015
  45. High-Pressure U3O8 with the Fluorite-Type Structure, X. Zhang, M. Lang, J.W. Wang, W.X. Li, K. Sun, V. Prakapenka, R.C. Ewing, Journal of Solid State Chemistry, 213, 110-115, 2014