Kratos Axis Ultra XPS


Nanomaterials, photovoltaics, catalysis, corrosion, adhesion, electronic devices and packaging, magnetic media, display technology, surface treatments, and thin film coatings used for numerous applications

  • Chemical composition
  • Element state of materials
  • Element distribution
  • Depth-profiling
  • In-situ heating and cooling


Nancy Senabulya Muyanja


Room G019


Publications, presentations, and posters resulting from work on this instrument should state: “The authors acknowledge the financial support of the University of Michigan College of Engineering and NSF grant #DMR-0420785, and technical support from the Michigan Center for Materials Characterization.”


  • X-ray Sources: Monochromatic Al source, Al and Mg regular sources
  • Operating Conditions
    • Spectrum mode: ~ 10 mA ~ 15 kV
    • Parallel XPS imaging
  • Vacuum System
    • Specimen Transfer Chamber (STC): <5 x 10-7 torr
    • Specimen Analysis Chamber (SAC): ~1 x 10-9 torr
  • Specimen Stage
    • Motorized sample movement in x, y, z directions and tilting
    • Can be operated at ~600 oC to -100 oC
  • Analysis Area
    • Spectrum mode: Using the monochromated Al source, 2 x 1 mm with energy resolution ~0.5 ev
    • Small area spectroscopy: ~ several µm
    • Imaging mode: ~ 900 µm x 900 µm with spatial resolution ~ 6 µm


  1. Transparent Refractory Aerogels for Efficient Spectral Control in High‐Temperature Solar Power Generation, Z.J. Berquist, A.J. Gayle, N.P. Dasgupta, A. Lenert, Advanced Functional Materials, 2021
  2. Electrically Conductive Kevlar Fibers and Polymer-Matrix Composites Enabled by Atomic Layer Deposition, R.E. Rodriguez, T.H. Lee, Y. Chen, E. Kazyak, C. Huang, T.H. Cho, W.S. LePage, M.D. Thouless, M. Banu, N.P. Dasgupta, ACS Appl. Polym. Mater., 3(11), 2021, 5959-5968
  3. Adjusting SiO2:C Mole Ratios in Rice Hull Ash (RHA) to Control Carbothermal Reduction to Nanostructured SiC, Si3N4 or Si2N2O Composites, M. Yu, E. Temeche, S. Indris, R.M. Laine, Green Chemistry, 23, 7751-7762, 2021
  4. Non-Fullerene Acceptor Organic Photovoltaics with Intrinsic Operational Lifetimes Over 30 Years, Y. Li, X. Huang, K. Ding, H.K.M Sheriff Jr., L. Ye, H. Liu, C-Z. Li, H. Ade, S.R. Forrest, Nature Communications, 12, 5419, 2021
  5. PbSe Quantum Dots for X-ray and γ-Ray Sensors, B.J. Davis, M.D. Hammig, ACS Appl. Nano Mater., 4(7), 6936-6946, 2021
  6. Stable and Selective Catalysts for Propane Dehydrogenation Operating at Thermodynamic Limit, A.H. Motagamwala, R. Almallahi, J. Wortman, V.O. Igenegbai, S. Linic, Science, 373(6551), 217-222
  7. Electrochemical MoOx/Carbon Nanocomposite-Based Gas Sensor for Formaldehyde Detection at Room Temperature, H.Y. Alolaywi, S. Duanghathaipornsuk, S.S. Kim, C-H. Li, J.R. Jinschek, D-S. Kim, A.C. Alba-Rubio, Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 168, 067525, 2021
  8. Improving the Thermal Stability and N-Butanol Oxidation Activity of Ag-TiO2 Catalysts by Controlling the Catalyst Architecture and Reaction Conditions, A. Bhat, A.J. Hill, G.B. Fisher, J.W. Schwank, Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 297, 120476, 2021
  9. Microwave Synthesis of Spinel MgFe2O4 Nanoparticles and the Effect of Annealing on Photocatalysis, K.D. McDonald, B.M. Bartlett, Inorganic Chemistry, 60(12), 8704-8709, 2021
  10. Plasma-Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition of p-Type Copper Oxide Semiconductors with Tunable Phase, Oxidation State, and Morphology, J.D. Lenef, J. Jo, O. Trejo, D.J. Mandia, R.L. Peterson, N.P. Dasgupta, J. Phys. Chem. C, 125(17), 9383-9390, 2021
  11. Memristors Based on (Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, Mo, W) High‐Entropy Oxides, M. Ahn, Y. Park, S.H. Lee, S. Chae, J. Lee, J.T. Heron, E. Kioupakis, W.D. Lu, J.D. Philips, Advanced Electronic Materials, 7(5), 2001258, 2021
  12. Chloride Oxidation as an Alternative to the Oxygen-Evolution Reaction on HxWO3 Photoelectrodes, A.G. Breuhaus-Alvarez, Q. Cheek, J.J. Cooper, S. Maldonado, B.M. Bartlett, J. Phys. Chem. C, 125(16), 8543-8550, 2021
  13. Sodium Tracer Measurements of an Expanded Dense Aluminum Plasma from E-Beam Isochoric Heating, N.B. Ramey, J.E. Coleman, P. Hakel, H.E. Morris, J. Colgan, J.E. Barefield, C.J. Fontes, R.M. Gilgenbach, R.D. McBride, Physics of Plasmas, 28, 033301, 2021
  14. Electrochemical Performance of LixSiON Polymer Electrolytes Derived from an Agriculture Waste Product, Rice Hull Ash, E. Temeche, X. Zhang, R.M. Laine, ACS Appl. Polym. Mater., 3(4), 2144-2152, 2021
  15. Improved Electrochemical Properties of Li4Ti5O12 Nanopowders (NPs) via Addition of LiAlO2 and Li6SiON Polymer Electrolytes, Derived from Agricultural Waste, E. Temeche, E. Buch, X. Zhang, T. Brandt, A. Hintennach, R.M. Laine, ACS Applied Energy Materials, 4(2), 2021
  16. Hydroxyl Radical Suppression During Photoelectrocatalytic Water Oxidation on WO3│FeOOH, A.D. Proctor, B.M. Bartlett, J. Phys. Chem. C, 124(33), 17957-17963, 2020
  17. Nitrate Radical Facilitates Indirect Benzyl Alcohol Oxidation on Bismuth (III) Vanadate Photoelectrodes, B.D. Terry, J.L. DiMeglio, J.P. Cousineau, B.M. Bartlett, ChemElectroChem, 7(18), 3776-3782, 2020
  18. High-Performance Zinc Tin Oxide TFTs with Active Layers Deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition, C.R. Allemang, T.H. Cho, O. Trejo, S. Ravan, R.E. Rodriguez, N.P. Dasgupta, R.L. Peterson, Advanced Electronic Materials, 6, 2000195, 2020
  19. Controlled Formation of Multilayer Films of Discrete Molecular Catalysts for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction Using a Layer-by-Layer Growth Mechanism Based on Sequential Click Chemistry, J.D. Kallick, W-J. Feng, C.L. McCrory, ACS Applied Energy Materials, 3, 6222-6231, 2020
  20. Assessing and Improving the Biocompatibility of Microfluidic Artificial Lungs, A.J. Thompson, L.J. Ma, T. Major, M. Jeakle, O. Lautner-Csorba, M.J. Goudie, H. Handa, A. Rojas-Pena, J.A. Potkay, Acta Biomaterialia, 112, 190-201, 2020 
  21. Thermally Induced Restructuring of Pd@CeO2 and Pd@SiO2 Nanoparticles as a Strategy for Enhancing Low-Temperature Catalytic Activity, A.J. Hill, C.Y. Seo, X. Chen, A. Bhat, G.B. Fisher, A. Lenert, J.W. Schwank, ACS Catalysis, 10, 1731-1741, 2020
  22. Monolithic Integration of High-Voltage Thin-Film Electronics on Low-Voltage Integrated Circuits Using a Solution Process, Y. Son, B. Frost, Y. Zhao, R.L. Peterson, Nature Electronics, 2, 540-548, 2019
  23. Magnetic Frustration Control through Tunable Stereochemically Driven Disorder in Entropy-Stabilized Oxides, P.B. Meisenheimer, L.D. Williams, S.H. Sung, J. Gim, P. Shafer, G.N. Kotsonis, J-P. Maria, M. Trassin, R. Hovden, E. Kioupakis, J.T. Heron, Physical Review Materials, 3, 104420, 2019
  24. Diverse Nanoassemblies of Graphene Quantum Dots and Their Mineralogical Counterparts, N.A. Kotov, Z-b. Qu, W-J. Feng, Y. Wang, F. Romanenko, Angewandte Chemie, 58, 2-11, 2019 
  25. Exploring Wettability by Imaging the Adsorption of Crude Oil, Re-Dissolved Asphaltene, and Phenol Solutions onto Calcite: Implications to Sorption Mechanisms and Molecular Structure of Surface-Active Compounds in Crude Oil, Chemical Geology, M.C. Marcano, S. Kim, S.D. Taylor, U. Becker, 525, 462-478, 2019 
  26. Photocatalytic Primary Alcohol Oxidation on WO3 Nanoplatelets, K.D. McDonald, B.M. Bartlett, RSC Advances, 9, 28688-28694, 2019
  27. Tuning Catalytic Performance by Controlling Reconstruction Process in Operando Condition, C. Cai, S. Han, K. Sun, L. Qiao, S. Li, X. Zu, Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 260, 118103, 2019
  28. Protection of GaInP2 Photocathodes by Direct Photoelectrodeposition of MoSx Thin Films, M. Lancaster, R. Mow, J. Liu, Q. Cheek, M.M. Macinnes, M.M. Al-Jassim, T.G. Deutsch, J.L. Young, S. Maldonado, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 11(28), 25115-25122, 2019
  29. Carbon-Assisted Catalyst Pretreatment Enables Straightforward Synthesis of High-Density Carbon Nanotube Forests, N.T. Dee, A.O. White, C. Jacob, W. Shi, P.R. Kidambi, K. Cui, D.N. Zakharov, N.Z. Janković, M. Bedewy, C.A.C. Chazot, J. Carpena-Núñez, B. Maruyama, E.A. Stach, D.L. Plata, A.J. Hart, Carbon, 153, 196-205, 2019
  30. Nitrate Mediated Alcohol Oxidation on Cadmium Sulfide Photocatalysts, J. DiMeglio, A.G. Breuheus-Alvarez, S. Li, B.M. Bartlett, ACS Catalysis, 2019(9), 5732-5741, 2019
  31. On Formation of Al-O-C Bonds at Aluminum/Polyamide Joint Interface, F.C. Liu, P. Dong, W. Lu, K. Sun, Applied Surface Science, 466, 202-209, 2019
  32. Imidazole for Pyridine Substitution Leads to Enhanced Activity under Milder Conditions in Cobalt Water Oxidation Electrocatalysis, N.D. McMillon, A.W. Wilson, M.K. Goetz, M. Chang, C. Lin, W. Feng, C. McCrory, J.S. Anderson, Inorganic Chemistry, 58(2), 1391-1397, 2019
  33. Understanding Molecular Fragmentation in Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Devices, C. Jeong, C. Coburn, M. Idris, Y. Li, P.L. Djurovich, M.E. Thompson, S.R. Forrest, Organic Electronics, 64, 15-21, 2019
  34. Kinetics and Faradaic Efficiency of Oxygen Evolution on Reduced HxWO3 Photoelectrodes, A.G. Breheus-Alvarez, J.L. DiMeglio, J.J. Cooper, C.R. Lhermitte, B.M. Bartlett, Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 123, 1142-1150, 2019
  35. Stability of Polyethylene Glycol and Zwitterionic Surface Modifications in PDMS Microfluidic Flow Chambers, T.J. Plegue, K.M. Kovach, A.J. Thompson, J.A. Potkay, Langmuir, 34(1), 492-502, 2018
  36. Effect of Surface Hydration on Antifouling Properties of Mixed Charged Polymers, C. Leng, H. Huang, K. Zhang, H. Hung, Y. Xu, Y. Li, S. Jiang, Z. Chen, Langmuir, 34(22), 6538-6545, 2018
  37. Use of Nitrogen-Containing Carbon Supports to Control the Acidity of Supported Heteropolyacid Model Catalysts, X. Zhao, X. Li, J. Chen, M.A. Barteau, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 57(42), 13999-14010, 2018
  38. Photocatalytic Reduction of Uranyl: Effects of Organic Ligands and UV Light Wavelengths, Y. Kim, M.C. Marcano, B.R. Ellis, U. Becker, American Journal of Science, 318(9), 949-968, 2018
  39. Atomic Layer Deposition and First Principles Modeling of Glassy Li3BO3-Li2CO3 Electrolytes for Solid-State Li Metal Batteries, E. Kazyak, K. Chen, A.L. Davis, S. Yu, A.J. Sanchez, J. Lasso, A.R. Bielinski, T. Thompson, J. Sakamoto, D.J. Siegel, N.P. Dasgupta, Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 6(40), 19425-19437, 2018
  40. Synergistic Effect of 3D Current Collectors and ALD Surface Modification for High Coulombic Efficiency Lithium Metal Anodes, K. Chen, A.J. Sanchez, E. Kazyak, A.L. Davis, N.P. Dasgupta, Advanced Energy Materials, 9(4), 1802534, 2018
  41. Effect of Relative Humidity and Pre-Annealing Temperature on Spin-Coated Zinc Tin Oxide Films Made via the Metal-Organic Decomposition Route, Y. Son, A. Liao, R.L. Peterson, Journal of Materials Chemistry C, 5, 8071-8081, 2017
  42. Inkjet-Printed Paper-Based Colorimetric Polyion Sensor Using a Smartphone as a Detector, X. Wang, M. Mahoney, M.E. Meyerhoff, Analytical Chemistry, 89, 12334-12341, 2017
  43. Role of Crystal Structure and Chalcogenide Redox Properties on the Oxidative Assembly of Cadmium Chalcogenide Nanocrystals, J.L. Davis, A.M. Chalifoux, S.L. Brock, Langmuir, 33(37), 9434-9443, 2017
  44. The Roles of Rare-Earth Dopants in Solution-Processed ZnO-Based Transparent Conductive Oxides, W. Hu, R.L. Peterson, Journal of Applied Physics, 122(10), 105301, 2017
  45. Ultrasmall Paramagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoprobe Targeting Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor for in Vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Y. Chen, Q. Zhou, X. Li, F. Wang, K. Heist, R. Kuick, S.R. Owens, T.D. Wang, Bioconjugate Chemistry, 28(11), 2794-2803, 2017
  46. As Precious as Platinum: Iron Nitride for Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Liquid Ammonia, D.J. Little, D.O. Edwards, M.R. Smith, T.W. Hamann, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 9(19), 16228-16235, 2017
  47. Indium-Doped Co3O4 Nanorods for Catalytic Oxidation of CO and C3H6 towards Diesel Exhaust, L. Ma, C.Y. Seo, X.Y. Chen, K. Sun, J.W. Schwank, Applied Catalysis B-Environmental, 222, 44-58, 2017
  48. Interplay of Corrosion and Photocatalysis During Nonaqueous Benzylamine Oxidation on Cadmium Sulfide, J.L. DiMeglio, B.M. Bartlett, Chemistry of Materials, 29 (17), 7579-7586, 2017
  49. Enhanced Interfacial Strength and UV Shielding of Aramid Fiber Composites through ZnO Nanoparticle Sizing, B.A. Patterson, H.A. Sodano, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 8(49), 33963-33971, 2016
  50. Direct Observation of Hydrogenation and Dehydrogenation of a Zirconium Alloy, H.H. Shen, X.T. Zu, B. Chen, C.Q. Huang, K. Sun, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 659, 23-30, 2016
  51. Memristive Behavior and Ideal Memristor of 1T Phase MoS2 Nanosheets, P.F. Cheng, K. Sun, Y.H. Hu, Nano Letters, 16(1), 572-576, 2016
  52. An Efficient Counter Electrode Material for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells—Flower-Structured 1T Metallic Phase MoS2, W. Wei, K. Sun, Y.H. Hu, Journal of Materials Chemistry, 4(32), 12398-12401, 2016
  53. Mechanically-Induced Reverse Phase Transformation of MoS2 from Stable 2H to Metastable 1T and its Memristive Behavior, P. Cheng, K. Sun, Y.H. Hu, RSC Advances, 6(70), 65691-65697, 2016
  54. The Bright Future for Electrode Materials of Energy Devices ─ Highly Conductive Porous Na-Embedded Carbon, W. Wei, L. Chang, K. Sun, A. Pak, E. Paek, G. Hwang, Y.H. Hu, Nano Letters, 16(12), 8029-8033, 2016
  55. In Situ Chemical Modification of Schottky Barrier in Solution-Processed Zinc Tin Oxide Diode, Y. Son, J. Li, R.L. Peterson, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 8(36), 23801–23809, 2016
  56. Kinetic Trapping of Immisicible Metal Atoms into Bimetallic Nanoparticles through Plasmonic Visible Light-Mediated Reduction of a Bimetallic Oxide Precursor: Case Study of Ag-Pt Nanoparticle Synthesis U. Aslam, S. Linic Chemistry of Materials, 28(22), 8289-8295, 2016
  57. Improved Cycle Life and Stability of Lithium Metal Anodes through Ultrathin Atomic Layer Deposition Surface Treatments, E. Kazyak, K.N. Wood, N.P. Dasgupta, Chem. Mater., 27 (18), 6457–6462, 2015
  58. Hierarchical ZnO Nanowire Growth with Tunable Orientations on Versatile Substrates Using Atomic Layer Deposition Seeding, A.R. Bielinski, E. Kazyak, C.M. Schlepütz, H.J. Jung, K.N. Wood, N.P. Dasgupta, Chem. Mater., 27(13), 4799–4807, 2015
  59. High-Pressure U3O8 with the Fluorite-Type Structure, X. Zhang, M. Lang, J.W. Wang, W.X. Li, K. Sun, V. Prakapenka, R.C. Ewing, Journal of Solid State Chemistry, 213, 110-115, 2014