Kratos Axis Ultra XPS


Nanomaterials, photovoltaics, catalysis, corrosion, adhesion, electronic devices and packaging, magnetic media, display technology, surface treatments, and thin film coatings used for numerous applications

  • Chemical composition
  • Element state of materials
  • Element distribution
  • Depth-profiling
  • In-situ heating and cooling


Nancy Senabulya Muyanja


Room G019


Publications, presentations, and posters resulting from work on this instrument should state: “The authors acknowledge the financial support of the University of Michigan College of Engineering and NSF grant #DMR-0420785, and technical support from the Michigan Center for Materials Characterization.”


  • X-ray Sources: Monochromatic Al source, Al and Mg regular sources
  • Operating Conditions
    • Spectrum mode: ~ 10 mA ~ 15 kV
    • Parallel XPS imaging
  • Vacuum System
    • Specimen Transfer Chamber (STC): <5 x 10-7 torr
    • Specimen Analysis Chamber (SAC): ~1 x 10-9 torr
  • Specimen Stage
    • Motorized sample movement in x, y, z directions and tilting
    • Can be operated at ~600 oC to -100 oC
  • Analysis Area
    • Spectrum mode: Using the monochromated Al source, 2 x 1 mm with energy resolution ~0.5 ev
    • Small area spectroscopy: ~ several µm
    • Imaging mode: ~ 900 µm x 900 µm with spatial resolution ~ 6 µm


  1. Macroscopic Transition Metal Dichalcogenides Monolayers with Uniformly High Optical Quality, Q. Li, A. Alfrey, J. Hu, N. Lydick, E. Paik, B. Liu, H. Sun, Y. Lu, R. Wang, S. Forrest, H. Deng, Nature Communications, 14, 1837, 2023
  2. Band alignment and charge carrier transport properties of YAlN/III-nitride heterostructures, D. Wang, S. Mondal, P. Kezer, M. Hu, J. Liu, Y. Wu, P. Zhou, T. Ma, P. Wang, D. Wang, J.T. Heron, Z. Mi, Applied Surface Science, 637, 157893, 2023
  3. Hydrothermal synthesis of chiral carbon dots, A. Visheratina, L. Hesami, A.K. Wilson, N. Baalbaki, N. Noginova, M.A. Noginov, N.A. Kotov, Chirality, 34 (12), 1503-1514, 2022
  4. Transparent Refractory Aerogels for Efficient Spectral Control in High‐Temperature Solar Power Generation, Z.J. Berquist, A.J. Gayle, N.P. Dasgupta, A. Lenert, Advanced Functional Materials, 2021
  5. Electrically Conductive Kevlar Fibers and Polymer-Matrix Composites Enabled by Atomic Layer Deposition, R.E. Rodriguez, T.H. Lee, Y. Chen, E. Kazyak, C. Huang, T.H. Cho, W.S. LePage, M.D. Thouless, M. Banu, N.P. Dasgupta, ACS Appl. Polym. Mater., 3(11), 2021, 5959-5968
  6. Adjusting SiO2:C Mole Ratios in Rice Hull Ash (RHA) to Control Carbothermal Reduction to Nanostructured SiC, Si3N4 or Si2N2O Composites, M. Yu, E. Temeche, S. Indris, R.M. Laine, Green Chemistry, 23, 7751-7762, 2021
  7. Non-Fullerene Acceptor Organic Photovoltaics with Intrinsic Operational Lifetimes Over 30 Years, Y. Li, X. Huang, K. Ding, H.K.M Sheriff Jr., L. Ye, H. Liu, C-Z. Li, H. Ade, S.R. Forrest, Nature Communications, 12, 5419, 2021
  8. PbSe Quantum Dots for X-ray and γ-Ray Sensors, B.J. Davis, M.D. Hammig, ACS Appl. Nano Mater., 4(7), 6936-6946, 2021
  9. Stable and Selective Catalysts for Propane Dehydrogenation Operating at Thermodynamic Limit, A.H. Motagamwala, R. Almallahi, J. Wortman, V.O. Igenegbai, S. Linic, Science, 373(6551), 217-222
  10. Electrochemical MoOx/Carbon Nanocomposite-Based Gas Sensor for Formaldehyde Detection at Room Temperature, H.Y. Alolaywi, S. Duanghathaipornsuk, S.S. Kim, C-H. Li, J.R. Jinschek, D-S. Kim, A.C. Alba-Rubio, Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 168, 067525, 2021
  11. Improving the Thermal Stability and N-Butanol Oxidation Activity of Ag-TiO2 Catalysts by Controlling the Catalyst Architecture and Reaction Conditions, A. Bhat, A.J. Hill, G.B. Fisher, J.W. Schwank, Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 297, 120476, 2021
  12. Microwave Synthesis of Spinel MgFe2O4 Nanoparticles and the Effect of Annealing on Photocatalysis, K.D. McDonald, B.M. Bartlett, Inorganic Chemistry, 60(12), 8704-8709, 2021
  13. Plasma-Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition of p-Type Copper Oxide Semiconductors with Tunable Phase, Oxidation State, and Morphology, J.D. Lenef, J. Jo, O. Trejo, D.J. Mandia, R.L. Peterson, N.P. Dasgupta, J. Phys. Chem. C, 125(17), 9383-9390, 2021
  14. Memristors Based on (Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, Mo, W) High‐Entropy Oxides, M. Ahn, Y. Park, S.H. Lee, S. Chae, J. Lee, J.T. Heron, E. Kioupakis, W.D. Lu, J.D. Philips, Advanced Electronic Materials, 7(5), 2001258, 2021
  15. Chloride Oxidation as an Alternative to the Oxygen-Evolution Reaction on HxWO3 Photoelectrodes, A.G. Breuhaus-Alvarez, Q. Cheek, J.J. Cooper, S. Maldonado, B.M. Bartlett, J. Phys. Chem. C, 125(16), 8543-8550, 2021
  16. Sodium Tracer Measurements of an Expanded Dense Aluminum Plasma from E-Beam Isochoric Heating, N.B. Ramey, J.E. Coleman, P. Hakel, H.E. Morris, J. Colgan, J.E. Barefield, C.J. Fontes, R.M. Gilgenbach, R.D. McBride, Physics of Plasmas, 28, 033301, 2021
  17. Electrochemical Performance of LixSiON Polymer Electrolytes Derived from an Agriculture Waste Product, Rice Hull Ash, E. Temeche, X. Zhang, R.M. Laine, ACS Appl. Polym. Mater., 3(4), 2144-2152, 2021
  18. Improved Electrochemical Properties of Li4Ti5O12 Nanopowders (NPs) via Addition of LiAlO2 and Li6SiON Polymer Electrolytes, Derived from Agricultural Waste, E. Temeche, E. Buch, X. Zhang, T. Brandt, A. Hintennach, R.M. Laine, ACS Applied Energy Materials, 4(2), 2021
  19. Hydroxyl Radical Suppression During Photoelectrocatalytic Water Oxidation on WO3│FeOOH, A.D. Proctor, B.M. Bartlett, J. Phys. Chem. C, 124(33), 17957-17963, 2020
  20. Nitrate Radical Facilitates Indirect Benzyl Alcohol Oxidation on Bismuth (III) Vanadate Photoelectrodes, B.D. Terry, J.L. DiMeglio, J.P. Cousineau, B.M. Bartlett, ChemElectroChem, 7(18), 3776-3782, 2020
  21. High-Performance Zinc Tin Oxide TFTs with Active Layers Deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition, C.R. Allemang, T.H. Cho, O. Trejo, S. Ravan, R.E. Rodriguez, N.P. Dasgupta, R.L. Peterson, Advanced Electronic Materials, 6, 2000195, 2020
  22. Controlled Formation of Multilayer Films of Discrete Molecular Catalysts for the Oxygen Reduction Reaction Using a Layer-by-Layer Growth Mechanism Based on Sequential Click Chemistry, J.D. Kallick, W-J. Feng, C.L. McCrory, ACS Applied Energy Materials, 3, 6222-6231, 2020
  23. Assessing and Improving the Biocompatibility of Microfluidic Artificial Lungs, A.J. Thompson, L.J. Ma, T. Major, M. Jeakle, O. Lautner-Csorba, M.J. Goudie, H. Handa, A. Rojas-Pena, J.A. Potkay, Acta Biomaterialia, 112, 190-201, 2020 
  24. Thermally Induced Restructuring of Pd@CeO2 and Pd@SiO2 Nanoparticles as a Strategy for Enhancing Low-Temperature Catalytic Activity, A.J. Hill, C.Y. Seo, X. Chen, A. Bhat, G.B. Fisher, A. Lenert, J.W. Schwank, ACS Catalysis, 10, 1731-1741, 2020
  25. Monolithic Integration of High-Voltage Thin-Film Electronics on Low-Voltage Integrated Circuits Using a Solution Process, Y. Son, B. Frost, Y. Zhao, R.L. Peterson, Nature Electronics, 2, 540-548, 2019
  26. Magnetic Frustration Control through Tunable Stereochemically Driven Disorder in Entropy-Stabilized Oxides, P.B. Meisenheimer, L.D. Williams, S.H. Sung, J. Gim, P. Shafer, G.N. Kotsonis, J-P. Maria, M. Trassin, R. Hovden, E. Kioupakis, J.T. Heron, Physical Review Materials, 3, 104420, 2019
  27. Diverse Nanoassemblies of Graphene Quantum Dots and Their Mineralogical Counterparts, N.A. Kotov, Z-b. Qu, W-J. Feng, Y. Wang, F. Romanenko, Angewandte Chemie, 58, 2-11, 2019 
  28. Exploring Wettability by Imaging the Adsorption of Crude Oil, Re-Dissolved Asphaltene, and Phenol Solutions onto Calcite: Implications to Sorption Mechanisms and Molecular Structure of Surface-Active Compounds in Crude Oil, Chemical Geology, M.C. Marcano, S. Kim, S.D. Taylor, U. Becker, 525, 462-478, 2019 
  29. Photocatalytic Primary Alcohol Oxidation on WO3 Nanoplatelets, K.D. McDonald, B.M. Bartlett, RSC Advances, 9, 28688-28694, 2019
  30. Tuning Catalytic Performance by Controlling Reconstruction Process in Operando Condition, C. Cai, S. Han, K. Sun, L. Qiao, S. Li, X. Zu, Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 260, 118103, 2019
  31. Protection of GaInP2 Photocathodes by Direct Photoelectrodeposition of MoSx Thin Films, M. Lancaster, R. Mow, J. Liu, Q. Cheek, M.M. Macinnes, M.M. Al-Jassim, T.G. Deutsch, J.L. Young, S. Maldonado, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 11(28), 25115-25122, 2019
  32. Carbon-Assisted Catalyst Pretreatment Enables Straightforward Synthesis of High-Density Carbon Nanotube Forests, N.T. Dee, A.O. White, C. Jacob, W. Shi, P.R. Kidambi, K. Cui, D.N. Zakharov, N.Z. Janković, M. Bedewy, C.A.C. Chazot, J. Carpena-Núñez, B. Maruyama, E.A. Stach, D.L. Plata, A.J. Hart, Carbon, 153, 196-205, 2019
  33. Nitrate Mediated Alcohol Oxidation on Cadmium Sulfide Photocatalysts, J. DiMeglio, A.G. Breuheus-Alvarez, S. Li, B.M. Bartlett, ACS Catalysis, 2019(9), 5732-5741, 2019
  34. On Formation of Al-O-C Bonds at Aluminum/Polyamide Joint Interface, F.C. Liu, P. Dong, W. Lu, K. Sun, Applied Surface Science, 466, 202-209, 2019
  35. Imidazole for Pyridine Substitution Leads to Enhanced Activity under Milder Conditions in Cobalt Water Oxidation Electrocatalysis, N.D. McMillon, A.W. Wilson, M.K. Goetz, M. Chang, C. Lin, W. Feng, C. McCrory, J.S. Anderson, Inorganic Chemistry, 58(2), 1391-1397, 2019
  36. Understanding Molecular Fragmentation in Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Devices, C. Jeong, C. Coburn, M. Idris, Y. Li, P.L. Djurovich, M.E. Thompson, S.R. Forrest, Organic Electronics, 64, 15-21, 2019
  37. Kinetics and Faradaic Efficiency of Oxygen Evolution on Reduced HxWO3 Photoelectrodes, A.G. Breheus-Alvarez, J.L. DiMeglio, J.J. Cooper, C.R. Lhermitte, B.M. Bartlett, Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 123, 1142-1150, 2019
  38. Stability of Polyethylene Glycol and Zwitterionic Surface Modifications in PDMS Microfluidic Flow Chambers, T.J. Plegue, K.M. Kovach, A.J. Thompson, J.A. Potkay, Langmuir, 34(1), 492-502, 2018
  39. Effect of Surface Hydration on Antifouling Properties of Mixed Charged Polymers, C. Leng, H. Huang, K. Zhang, H. Hung, Y. Xu, Y. Li, S. Jiang, Z. Chen, Langmuir, 34(22), 6538-6545, 2018
  40. Use of Nitrogen-Containing Carbon Supports to Control the Acidity of Supported Heteropolyacid Model Catalysts, X. Zhao, X. Li, J. Chen, M.A. Barteau, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 57(42), 13999-14010, 2018
  41. Photocatalytic Reduction of Uranyl: Effects of Organic Ligands and UV Light Wavelengths, Y. Kim, M.C. Marcano, B.R. Ellis, U. Becker, American Journal of Science, 318(9), 949-968, 2018
  42. Atomic Layer Deposition and First Principles Modeling of Glassy Li3BO3-Li2CO3 Electrolytes for Solid-State Li Metal Batteries, E. Kazyak, K. Chen, A.L. Davis, S. Yu, A.J. Sanchez, J. Lasso, A.R. Bielinski, T. Thompson, J. Sakamoto, D.J. Siegel, N.P. Dasgupta, Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 6(40), 19425-19437, 2018
  43. Synergistic Effect of 3D Current Collectors and ALD Surface Modification for High Coulombic Efficiency Lithium Metal Anodes, K. Chen, A.J. Sanchez, E. Kazyak, A.L. Davis, N.P. Dasgupta, Advanced Energy Materials, 9(4), 1802534, 2018